Canada, or ‘the land of Mordor’ In order to fight climate change successfully, we must recognise that our economy is based on fossil fuels, i.e., coal, oil and gases. In order to secure our supplies in the 21st century, we seek new and extreme sources. We destroy the peaks of mountains for coal, we extract natural gases from water and we search for oil in the open seas. The worst of all the sources is tar sand, (or tar sand oil). Large swathes of forest are destroyed, streams and rivers are polluted, and animals and indigenous communities are endangered in order to
enable its extraction. Canada holds the world’s largest stocks of tar sand, in the province Alberta and, at main site of extraction, the amount of synthetic crude oil extracted per day is as great as 350,000 barrels. Crude oil is washed out of the sand; steam is pumped into the ground and as it is warms up, oil literally drips from the sand. And that is only the mining process; we have not even mentioned enrichment and refining.